スカウト運動に託した B-P スピリット
―― God's Kingdom ――
 B-P の著述の中から、B-P 自身が考えているスカウト運動の目的やねらい、託していること等の記述を探しました。訳はすべて私舟橋によるものです。誤訳や気になるところがありましたら、指摘してくださると嬉しいです。

 The object of a camp is (a) to meet the boy’s desire for the open-air life of the Scout, and (b) to put him completely in the hands of his Scoutmaster for a definite period for individual training in character and initiative and in physical and moral development.
 These objects are to a great extent lost if the camp be a big one. The only discipline that can there be earned out is the collective military form of discipline, which tends to destroy individuality and initiative instead of developing them; and, owing to there being too many boys for the ground, military drill has to a great extent to take the place of scouting practices and nature study.
 So it results that Scouts’ camps should be small − not more than one Troop camped together; and even then each Patrol should have its own separate tent at some distance (at least 100 yards) from the others. This latter is with a view to developing the responsibility of the Patrol Leader for his distinct unit. And the locality of the camp should be selected for its Scouting facilities.
from “Object of Camping” / The Scouter / October, 1909 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 キャンプの目的は、(a)少年の欲望に、スカウトの野外ライフを出会わせること、および(b)一人ひとりの 品性・人格(character)、独創力・率先力(initiative)、それらの肉体的道徳的開発の訓練のために、一定期間、少年を隊長(Scoutmaster)の手に完全に委ねることです。
 ですから、スカウトのキャンプは小さな規模でなくてはなりません。― せいぜい一個隊以下でキャンプを行い、そして各班はある程度の距離(少なくとも100ヤード)をおいて独自の個別テントを持つ必要があります。この後者は、班長の、彼が受け持つ集団における責任感の開発を視野に入れています。また、キャンプ地は、スカウティングの設備設営や技量発揮に適した場所を選ぶべきです。

 The best form of instruction of all for a Scoutmaster to give is by the force of example.
 It is essential if he is going to succeed in putting the right character into his boys that he should himself practise what he preaches. Boys are imitative, and what the Scoutmaster gives off, that they pick up and reflect. Instructions, and especially orders, are apt to have different and even opposite effects with boys ― order a boy not to smoke and he is at once tempted to try it as an adventure; but give him the example, show him that any fool can smoke but a wise Scout doesn’t, and it is another matter.
 Therefore, it is of first importance that every Scout-master, with this great responsibility on his shoulders, should examine himself very closely, suppress any of the minor faults which he may ― in fact, is bound to ― possess, and train himself to practise what he preaches, so as to give the right example to his lads for the shaping of their lives, characters, and careers.
from “Playing the Game” / The Scouter / July, 1910 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 隊長は、もし少年に正しい品性・人格(character)を身に付けさせようとするならば、教えようとすることを彼自身が示すということが不可欠です。少年は真似をするものであり、隊長のすることをすぐに真似します。指示、特に命令は、少年には異なる結末、反対の効果をもたらします。― 少年に喫煙しないよう命令しても、彼は一度冒険としてそれをしようとする誘惑にかられます。しかし、隊長自ら模範(example)を示し、愚か者は喫煙できるが賢明なスカウトは喫煙しないことを見せれば、それは違った結果になります。
 したがって、隊長としてまず大切なことは、隊長の肩には大きな責任がのっていることを認識し、自分自身を振り返り、あるかもしれない ― 実際あるであろう ― 自分の欠点を抑え、彼が説くことを実践するために自ら鍛え、若者たちに、彼らの人生、品性・人格(character)、キャリア形成のための正しい手本(example)を示せるようにすることです。

 At present the country spends so many millions on education, that is on training its sons and daughters to be good, healthy, prosperous citizens, and if education successfully effected this result there would be little to say against it.
 But we have to look at the other side of the balance sheet as it actually exists. Here we find that we spend an equal number of millions on punishing our “educated” people for failing to be the good citizens they ought to be, or on trying to remedy their defects in this direction.
 Prisons and police, poor relief and unemployed, aged poor and infant mortality, squalor, irreligion, seething discontent ― what a crop of tares for all our sowing of expensive seed! All traceable more or less directly to the want of education ― not education in the three R’s, but education in high ideals, in self-reliance, in sense of duty, in fortitude, in self-respect and regard for others ― in one word, in those Christian attributes that go to make “Character,” which is the essential equipment for a successful career.
 Is this being looked to in the new scheme of education?
 In the Boy Scout Movement our aim is, as far as possible, so to shape our syllabus as to make it a practical form of character training, and to render it complementary to the scholastic training of the schools.
from “Education ― Debtor and Creditor” / The Scouter / October, 1913 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 刑務所、警察、救貧、失業、高齢貧困者、幼児死亡、不潔、無宗教、不満噴出 ― 私たちは高価な種をまいているにもかかわらず、どうしてこんな作物がなるのでしょうか! それは多かれ少なかれ、すべては直接教育の貧困にさかのぼります ― 三つのR(読み・書き・算術)の教育でなく、あるべきは、高い理想、自立心、義務感、不屈の精神、自尊心そして他者への敬意を育てる教育 ― すなわちキリスト教徒の属性を表す一つの言葉である“Character(品性・人格)”を作り上げていく教育であり、それは成功に導くための必須の機能であります。

 What is our aim?
 Our aim is to get hold of the boys and to open up their minds, to bring out each lad’s character (and no two are exactly alike), to make them into good men for God and their country, to encourage them to be energetic workers and to be honourable, manly fellows with a brotherly feeling for one another.
 As our Movement attracts all classes (the poorest get equal chances and consideration with the more fortunate), much of the present human wastage will be turned into valuable citizenhood.
 It is by the character of its citizens, not by the force of its arms, that a country rises superior to others.
 If we can get that character and sense of brotherhood instilled into all our boys at home and in the British Dominions overseas, we shall forge a stronger link to that which at present holds the whole Empire together.
 And as the Movement gets a hold, as it is doing, in foreign countries as well, it will promote a common bond of sympathy which makes for peace between the nations.
 Our opportunities and possibilities in these directions are immense; and these are the aims which our Scoutmasters have before them in planning their work.
from “Where Drill Fails” / The Scouter / January, 1914 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 私たちのねらいは、少年たちを私たちのもとに集め、そして彼らの心を開き、それぞれの若者の品性・人格(character)を引き出し (それは同じものは二つとありません)、神と自国にとって良い人間に仕立て、精力的な働き手となるよう励まし、そして相互に兄弟意識を持つ誇らしく男らしい仲間にすることです。
 私たちの運動は、あらゆる階層の人を引き付けるので (最貧困層であってもより幸せになるように同じ機会と配慮が得られます)、多くの現在活かされていない状況にある人々は、きっと価値高い市民に変わることでしょう。

 A boy does not really get the value of the Scout training until he is a First-class Scout. The Second-class is only a step to that standing.
 When a boy has become a First-class Scout − but not before then − he has got a grounding in the qualities, mental, moral, and physical, that go to make a good useful man. I don’t consider a boy is a real Scout till he has passed his first-class tests.
from “First-class Scout” / The Scouter / February, 1914 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 少年は1級スカウトになったとき ― それ以前ではありません ― 彼は善良な役に立つ男になるための、精神的、道徳的、および身体的資質の基盤が築かれたということです。 私は少年が1級のテストに合格するまでは本当のスカウトであるとは考えていません。

 Concentration in education can only be obtained when the work to be done is suited to the tastes and abilities of the learner.
 The natural instinct of the infant is to develop itself by exercise which we call “Play.” It has an inherent desire to accomplish; the young child wants to do things and to overcome difficulties to its own satisfaction.
 Dr. Montessori has proved that by encouraging a child in its natural desires, instead of instructing it in what you think it ought to do, you can educate it on a much more solid and far-reaching basis. It is only tradition and custom that ordain that education should be a labour, and that as such it is good training for the child in discipline and application.
 One of the original objects of Scouting for Boys was to break through this tradition and to show that, by giving attractive pursuits to the young, one could lead them to develop for themselves the essentials of character, health, and handiness.
 The aim of the Proficiency Badge is to encourage self-education on the part of the boy in a subject which interests him.
from “Self-education” / The Scouter / January, 1916 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 スカウティング フォア ボーイズ の本来の目的の一つは、この伝統を打ち破り、若者に魅力的な追求対象を与えることによって、品性・人格(character)、健康、器用さ(handiness)という人に必須の要素を、彼自ら伸ばすことができることを示すことでした。

 The man who has been knocking about the world, the man who has tasted danger and faced death, the man, in fact, who has seen life in the better sense of the phrase, is generally deeply religious. But his religion would not be recognised by some; it is unorthodox − it has not been formulated by man, but is the natural outcome of his constant communing with Nature.
 He probably could not define it himself, because it has no doctrine, no ritual.
 He has come to appreciate the vastness approaching to infinity in Nature with nevertheless a regular law underlying it all, and he has come to realise that even the small things, down to the microscopic germs, have each their part and responsibility in the working of the whole.
 He has thus learnt his own comparative insignificance, and at the same time his own duty in life.
 But in many cases form has so overclothed the original simple faith of Nature that it is hardly recognisable. We have come to judge a religion very much as we do a person − if we are snobbish − by its dress.
 Yet the natural form in religion is so simple that a child can understand it; a boy can understand it, a Boy Scout can understand it. It comes from within, from conscience, from observation, from love, for use in all that he does. It is not a formality or a dogmatic dressing donned from outside, put on for Sunday wear. It is, therefore, a true part of his character, a development of soul, and not a veneer that may peel off.
 Once the true body is there it can be dressed in the clothing best suited to it, but clothing without the body is a mere scarecrow − camouflage.
 I do not mean by this that we want to divert a boy from the faith of his fathers; far from it.
 The aim is to give him the better foundation for that faith by encouraging in him perceptions which are understandable by him.
 Too often we forget when presenting religion to the boy that he sees it all from a very different point of view from that of the grown-up. Nor can true religion be taught as a lesson to a class in school.
 It is appalling to think what a vast proportion of our boys have turned out either prigs or unbelievers through misconception of these points on the part of their teachers.
from “The Religion of the Backwoods” / The Scouter / April, 1918 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 世界中を訪れた人、危険を味わった人、死に直面した人、つまりある意味で命を見た人は、多くの場合、深く宗教的です。でもこの宗教は、人々に認識されることはないでしょう。それは人為的に策定された正統の宗教ではなく、自然との対話・交流(constant communing)によって自然に生まれ出でたものです。
 しかしながら、多くの場合、(既存の宗教の)形式(form)は、自然から生まれ出でる本来の素朴な信仰を覆い隠してしまい、ほとんどその姿を見ることはできません。私たちは宗教を、― 私たちのうぬぼれ(snobbish)で ― それがまとっている衣を見て審判(judge)するようになってしまいました。
 本当の肉体があるのであれば、それに最も適した服を着せることができますが、肉体がなければそれは単なるかかしであり ― ごまかし(camouflage)です。

 Why is Nature Lore considered a Key Activity in Scouting? That is a question on which hangs the difference between Scout work and that of the ordinary Boys’ Club or Brigade. Nature lore, as I have probably insisted only too often gives the best means of opening out the minds and thoughts of boys, and at the same time, if the point is not lost sight of by their trainer, it gives them power of appreciating beauty in Nature, and consequently in art, such as leads them to a higher enjoyment of life.
 This is in addition to what I have previously advocated in Nature study, namely the realisation of God, the Creator, through His wondrous work, and the active performance of His will in service for others.
 Among the masses of poorer boys their eyes have never been opened, and to the Scoutmaster is given the joy of bringing about this worth-while operation. Once the germ of woodcraft has entered into the mind of a boy, observation and deduction develop automatically and become part of his character. They remain, whatever other pursuits he may afterwards take up.
 As the wonders of Nature are unfolded to the young mind, so, too, its beauties can be pointed out and gradually become recognised. When appreciation of beauty is once given a place in the mind, it grows automatically in the same way as observation, and brings joy in the greyest of surroundings.
from “Nature Study” / The Scouter / February, 1919 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 何故、ネイチュアロア(Nature lore:自然の振る舞いを見、自然が発する声を聞くこと)が、スカウティングにおける鍵となる活動と捉えられているのでしょうか。この問いこそ、スカウト活動と、ボーイズクラブやブリゲードなどの普通の活動との違いを明らかにする要です。ネイチュアロア(Nature lore)は、私は今までこのことをしつこすぎるほどいっているかもしれませんが、これは少年たちの心と思想をひらくための最上の手段であり、同時に、彼らの指導者がその要点を見失わないように導きさえすれば、大自然の美しさを、ひいては人の技の美しさを、正しく認識する(appreciating)力をもたらし、それは人生のより高い楽しみへと少年たちを導くことになります。
 これは、自然研究(Nature study)について私が以前から主張してきたことであり、すなわち、造物主たる神の驚くべき御業を通して神を実感することと、他の人への奉仕(service)という神の意思としての能動的な行動との連接を意味します。

 Nature Study ― There are sermons in the observation of Nature, say, in bird life, the formation of every feather identical with that of the same species 10,000 miles away, the migration, the nesting, the colouring of the egg, the growth of the young, the mothering, the feeding, the flying power ― all done without the aid of man, but under the law of the Creator; these are the best of sermons for boys.
 The flowers in their orders, and plants of every kind, their buds and bark, the animals and their habits and species; then the stars in the heavens, with their appointed places and ordered moves in space, give to every one the first conception of Infinity and of the vast scheme of his Creator where man is of so small account. All these have a fascination for boys, which appeals in an absorbing degree to their inquisitiveness and powers of observation, and leads them directly to recognise the hand of God in this world of wonders, if only some one introduces them to it.
 The wonder to me of all wonders is how some teachers have neglected this easy and unfailing means of education and have struggled to impose Biblical instruction as the first step towards getting a restless, full-spirited boy to think of higher things.
from “Aids To Scoutmastership” / 1920

 自然研究 ― 自然の観察から多くの導きの言葉(sermons)が得られます。例えば鳥の生態、同じ種類の鳥は、たとえ1万マイルへだてた所でも羽毛の並び方は同じであり、渡り、巣作り、卵の色、雛の育ち方、母鳥の世話の仕方、食餌、飛翔力など ― これらすべてが人間の力によらず、造物主の定めたところに従ってなされています ― このようなことを知ることが、少年たちにとって最良の導きの言葉(sermons)になるのではないでしょうか。
 季節に従って順番どおりに咲く花々、あらゆる種類の植物のつぼみや樹皮、いろいろな動物の習性や種類、そして宇宙におけるそれぞれ定められた場所に整然と運行する星々 ― これらは果てしない造物主の広大な計画の中にあって、人間が何とも小さい存在であることをすべての者に知らしめます。これらはすべての少年たちを魅了する力を持ち、彼らの探求心と観察力を夢中にさせるほどに刺激するものであり、もし誰かが糸口をつけてやりさえすれば、この驚異に満ちた世界における神の御業を、少年たちに直に知らしめてくれます。

 What is Scouting?
 Not one in a hundred of our own people knows this.
 Scouting is not a thing that can be taught by wording it in public speeches, nor by defining it in print. Its successful application depends entirely on the grasp of the Scout spirit by both trainer and trainee. What this spirit is can only be understood by outsiders when they see it ruling, as it already does to a vast extent, the thoughts and the actions of each member of our brotherhood.
 Thus every Scoutmaster and every Commissioner will be an apostle to them, not merely through what he says but through what he imparts by impression and through what he does himself in his own personality.
 For this he must, as a first point, be imbued with a real understanding knowledge of the Scout ideals, the methods we use to gain them, and the reasons that underlie them.
 Among them he realises, for instance:
 That the need is urgent of a great social rise out of the present slough of squalor;
 That the State education system has its limitations for developing the character, the health, the technical skill, and the communal Christianity that are necessary;
 That Scouting can help by attracting the boy or girl, or by helping him or her to acquire these qualities;
 That this cannot be done by the imposition of artificial instruction from without but by the encouragement of the natural impulses from within;
 That this is imparted by personal leadership and example on the part of the Scoutmaster himself, and not by his mere instruction;
 That the intelligent application of Nature lore and woodcraft largely supplies the means and the incentive, while the Promise and the Scout Law give the direction;
 That the growth of the Movement both at home and in every civilised foreign country is phenomenal, not merely for its numbers but because it is entirely natural from within and has not been artificially forced from without;
 That it is brotherhood − scheme which, in practice, disregards differences of class, creed, country and colour, through the undefinable spirit that pervades it − the spirit of God’s gentleman.
 Now these, you will say, are things that you know already, and don’t need to be told. Yes, that is so. But what I want is that you should pass them on to those who don’t know them.
from “What is Scouting?” / The Scouter / July, 1920 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 ネイチュアロア(Nature lore)とウッドクラフトという知的な手法は、主に手段や動機を提供し、一方、ちかいとおきてはその方向性を与えるものであること。
 それは兄弟愛 ― それは、階級や信条、国、人種の違いなんか気にしないし関知しない(disregard)という態度の志向であり、それに浸透する定義しがたいスピリットをとおして ― すなわち、神に使える者のスピリットであるということなのです。

 I see that I have been quoted as advocating woodcraft as “the key activity for true Scouting.”
 That is correct. But, then, the term “woodcraft” has been explained as meaning to dress up like Red Indians, and that, therefore, I advocate the adoption of “scalp locks and wampum, teepees and feathers.” This is not correct.
 Woodcraft goes a great deal deeper than the surface attraction or imitation of one or other of the more primitive tribes of men.
 It is rather the power that is common to all these people of reading from the book of Nature, and their lines of education are through natural if somewhat primitive methods, which, with us, have been swamped out under the application of artificial steps.
 In observation and deduction, in camp skill, in self-support, in communal discipline, in physical self-development (including quickness of eye) and endurance, in simple pleasures and power of enjoyment, there is a good deal that we may, with advantage, learn from the so-called savage.
 This same education, as we see it, applied to the civilised man in the case of the explorer, the backwoodsman, and the frontiersman makes him an individual more efficient, more manly and broader in mind and body than the average school-educated member of the crowd in a city.
from “Woodcraft is not Wampum” / The Scouter / July, 1920 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 それは間違いではありません。ところがそこで、「ウッドクラフト」という言葉には、レッド・インディアンのように装うという意味があり、よって「scalp locks(頭飾り)、wampum(貝殻の装飾品)、teepees(円錐型テント)、feathers(羽根の被り物)」で装うことが私の提唱と説明されていました。これは誤解です。

 There is no religious “side” to the Movement. The whole of it is based on religion, that is, on the realization and service of God.
November 1920 In the Footsteps of the Founder


 We work through “love and legislation”.
 The suggestion of Scouting has merely been given for the use of those who have the interest of their country and of their kind at heart. The men who have taken it up are not a force of masters and servants, officers and soldiers, but are a team of patriots bound by a common ideal as a Brotherhood, and that ideal is the betterment of the boy.
from “The Hang of the Thing” / The Scouter / July, 1921 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK


 In view of a very elaborate curriculum that was recently drawn up by one authority for standardising the tests for badges, I was obliged to criticise it in this sense:
 “I hope that the compilers are not losing sight of the aim and spirit of the Movement by making it into a training school of efficiency through curricula, marks, and standards.
 “Our aim is merely to help the boys, especially the least scholarly ones, to become personally enthused in subjects that appeal to them individually, and that will be helpful to them.
 “We do this through the fun and jollity of Scouting; by progressive stages they can then be led on, naturally and unconsciously, to develop for themselves their knowledge.
 “But if once we make it into a formal scheme of serious instruction for efficiency, we miss the whole point and value of the Scout training, and we trench on the work of the schools without the trained experts for carrying it out.
 “We have to remember that the Scoutmasters are voluntary play leaders in the game of Scouting, and not qualified school teachers, and that to give them a hard-and-fast syllabus is to check their ardour and their originality in dealing with their boys according to local conditions.
 “I could quite imagine it frightening away many Scoutmasters of the right sort.
 “The syllabus as suggested seems to go a good deal beyond what is prescribed as our dose in Scouting for Boys; and if the proportions of the ingredients given in a prescription are not adhered to you cannot well blame the doctor if the medicine doesn’t work.
 “Our standard for badge earning − as I have frequently said − is not the attainment of a certain level of quality of work (as in the school), but the Amount Of Effort Exercised By The Individual Candidate. This brings the most hopeless case on to a footing of equal possibility with his more brilliant or better-off brother.
 “We want to get them ALL along through cheery self-development from within and not through the imposition of formal instruction from without.”
from “Standardisation of Badges” / The Scouter / November, 1921 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 提示された履修課目は、スカウティング フォア ボーイズ で規定している以上の投薬量になっているように見えます。処方箋で示された成分の割合が守られないのであれば、薬が効かないからといって、医師を責めることなどできません。

 What is success?
 Top of the tree? Riches? Position? Power?
 Not a bit of it!
 These and many other ideas will naturally occur to your mind. They are what are generally preached as success, and also they generally mean overreaching some other fellows and showing that you are better than they are in one line or another. In other words, gaining something at another's expense.
 That is not my idea of success.
 My belief is that we were put into this world of wonders and beauty with a special ability to appreciate them, in some cases to have the fun of taking a hand in developing them, and also in being able to help other people instead of overreaching them and, through it all, to enjoy life ― that is, TO BE HAPPY.
 That is what I count as success, to be happy. But Happiness is not merely passive; that is, you don't get it by sitting down to receive it; that would be a smaller thing ― pleasure.
 But we are given arms and legs and brains and ambitions with which to be active; and it is the active that counts more than the passive in gaining true Happiness.
from “Rovering To Success” / 1922

 私の信じるところでは、 …人間は、この驚異と美に満ちた世界に、それを正しく認識する・評価する・味わう(appreciate)ことができる(人間だけがもちうる)特別な能力を持って生まれてきたのです。それは、場合によっては、この世界をよりよくすることに手を差し延べることが喜びになり、そして人々より抜きん出るのではなくその人たちを助けることもできる能力であります。そしてそれらをとおして人生を楽しむことができるのです。― これこそが幸福に至る途なのです。
 これが私が幸福になることが成功であるとする根拠です。しかし幸福というものは単純な受身的態度で得られるものではありません。腰を降ろしている者が受け取れるものではないのです。そんなことで得られるものは(幸福よりも)小さなもので、― 単なる愉快・快感(pleasure)でしかありません。

 As you train yourself in character and efficiency, let your aim all the time be not merely the attainment of position or prospects for yourself; but of the power to do good to other people, for the community. Once you have put yourself in a position to do service for others you have stepped on to the higher rung of the ladder that leads to real success ― that is happiness.
 Service includes not merely personal little good turns of courtesy and kindness to other people; these are right and good; they are what every Boy Scout does every day; but I mean something higher and bigger than this ― service as a citizen of your country.
 How can you best serve Him with the intelligence and power that He has given you? If you are in doubt, ask your Conscience, that is, the voice of God within you. He will tell you at once what is needed of you.
 Service is giving up your own pleasure or convenience to lend a hand to others who need it. Well, if you practice service to others day by day in little things as well as big, you will find yourself developing that spark of Love within you till it grows so strong that it carries you joyously over all the little difficulties and worries of life; you rise above them; you are filled with good will towards men; and Conscience, the voice within you, says "Well done!"
from “Rovering To Success” / 1922

 あなたが品性・人格(character)と能力をきたえる訓練を自分自身でするときは,あなたは単に自分の立身出世や展望の達成を目指すだけでなく、他の人々のために、また地域社会のために良いことすることを常に目標にしましょう。ひとたびあなたが他の人々に奉仕する立場にたったならば、あなたは真の成功 ― すなわち幸福 ― へ上るはしごに足をかけたことになるのです。
 奉仕というものは、単に他の人々に礼儀と優しさをつくすという個人的な小さな善行を指すのではありません。これは正しいことですし良いことです。それはボーイスカウトであれば誰もが毎日行うことです。しかし私がここで言う奉仕は、それよりもずっと崇高な、より大きなものを意味しています ― つまり国における市民としての奉仕です。

 Our teaching is mainly through example, and our Scouters give exactly the right lead in their patriotic dedication of self to the service of the boy, solely for the joy of doing it, and without thought of material reward.
 The boys are taught, beginning with the elementary good turn to mother on the part of the Wolf Cub, through the daily good turn and preparedness to save life on the part of the Scout, up to the regular practice of public service for others on the part of the Rover. The teaching of service is not merely a matter of teaching in theory, but the development of two distinct phases ― viz., the inculcation of the spirit of goodwill; and the provision of opportunity for its expression in practice.
from “Service” / The Scouter / January, 1924 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 少年たちは、ウルフカブにおいて母に対する初歩的な善行から始めて、スカウトにおいて日々の善行と人命救助の準備の励行を経て、仕上げとして、ローバーにおいて他の人々への公共奉仕を日常的に実践します。奉仕を教えるということは、単に理論的に教えるという問題ではなく、二つの別個の形相の開発 ― すなわち、善意の精神を説くこと、そして実際にそれを発揮する機会を提供することです。

 I have been asked to describe more fully than has been shown in "Scouting for Boys" what was in my mind as regards religion when I instituted Scouting and Guiding. I was asked "Where does Religion come in ?"
 Well, my reply is "It does not come in at all. It is already there. It is fundamental factor underlying Scouting and Guiding".
 It is, all important that this should be fully understood by Commissioners so that they can explain it to our Scouters and Guiders as well as to outsiders who may want to know about it.
 It is a question on which real broad-mindedness in one's own and fullest; consideration for the feelings of others have to be exercised, because it is, and rightly, the subject of all others upon which people feel most deeply. I cannot hope that all will agree with me in every respect, but at any rate ours is an attempt to break down those jealous barriers between creeds which have come down to us from medieval times.
 I think if the war did no great good to anyone at least it taught us that patriotism for one's country is not only narrow but harmful if it does not see beyond its own horizon and recognise and appreciate good in other nations, and that mutual respect and good-will rather than jealous criticism between peoples is the only way to ensure peace and prosperity in the world.
 As in nationalism so it is in religion. Support of one's own form of belief is a right and proper thing. but it becomes narrow sectarianism when it does not recognise and appreciate the good points in other denominations; if it fails to look with broadened and sympathetic view on the efforts of others to serve God it fails to help in bringing about God's Kingdom upon earth.
 By the term "God's Kingdom" I mean the prevailing of love in the world in the place of dominance of selfish interest and rivalry such as at present exists.
from An address by the Chief Scout to the Joint Conference of Commissioners of both Movements at High Leigh, July 2nd, 1926

 私がスカウティングとガイディングを創設した時、宗教についての自分の思いを、「スカウティング フォア ボーイズ」に示したよりももっと完全に記述するよう求められました。「宗教はどこに入ってきますか。」と尋ねられました。

 The Scout, in his promise, undertakes to do his duty to his king and country only in the second place; his first duty is to God. It is with this idea before us and recognizing that God is the one Father of us all, that we Scouts count ourselves a brotherhood despite the difference among us of country, creed, or class. We realize that in addition to the interests of our particular country, there is a higher mission before us, namely the promotion of the Kingdom of God; That is, the rule of Peace and Goodwill on earth. In the Scouts each form of religion is respected and its active practice encouraged and through the spread of our brotherhood in all countries, we have the opportunity in developing the spirit of mutual good will and understanding.
from the opening speech of the Fourth International Conference at Kandersteg in August 1926 / Scouting as a Cocurricular Activity


 For an open Troop, or for Troops in camp, I think the Scouts’ Own should be open to all denominations, and carried on in such manner as to offend none. There should not be any special form, but it should abound in the right spirit, and should be conducted not from any ecclesiastical point of view, but from that of the boy. Everything likely to make an artificial atmosphere should be avoided. We do not want a kind of imposed Church Parade, but a voluntary uplifting of their hearts by the boys in thanksgiving for the joys of life, and a desire on their part to seek inspiration and strength for greater love and service for others. A Scouts’ Own should have as big an effect on the boys as any service in Church, if in conducting the Scouts’ Own we remember that boys are not grown men, and if we go by the pace of the youngest and most uneducated of those present. Boredom is not reverence, nor will it breed religion.
 To interest the boys, the Scouts’ Own must be a cheery and varied function. Short hymns (three verses are as a rule quite enough − never more than four); understandable prayers; a good address from a man who really understands boys (a homely “talk” rather than an address), which grips the boys, and in which they may laugh or applaud as the spirit moves them, so that they take a real interest in what is said. If a man cannot make his point to keen boys in ten minutes he ought to be shot! If he has not got them keen, it would be better not to hold a Scouts’ Own at all.
from “Some Ideas on Scouts’ Owns” / The Scouter / November, 1928 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 宗派に属さない隊(Open Troop)、または隊のキャンプにおいて、スカウツオウンの集会(Scouts' Own)は、すべての宗派に開かれ、誰の怒りも買わない配慮をもって運営されるべきと私は思っています。それは特別な形式にするべきではなく、健全な精神に富み、教会の見地ではなく、少年の見地で行われるべきです。上辺だけの雰囲気を作りだす可能性が高いことは、すべて排除すべきです。私たちは、礼拝参列のような課せられたものではなく、少年たちが人生の喜びに感謝し、他の人たちにより大きな愛を発し奉仕をしたいという欲動とその強さを追求し、彼らの心が自発的に高揚するものでありたい。スカウツオウンの集会は、少年は大人ではないということを自覚し、常に、その参加者の最年少の人、最も無学の人にペースを合わせて実施すれば、教会の礼拝と同じように、少年たちに大きな影響を及ぼすことでしょう。退屈なものからは、畏敬の念は生まれないし、また信仰心も育ちません。
 少年たちの興味を引くためには、スカウツオウンの集会は、愉快で、変化に富んだものでなければなりません。短い賛美歌 (3番までで十分、4番以上のことはありえません)、分かりやすいお祈り、少年を本当に熟知している人からの良いお話 (演説ではなく家庭的な「トーク」)、それらをもって少年たちの心をつかめば、少年たちは感動し、笑ったり、拍手を送ったりすることになります。それにより、少年たちはその人からの話を聞くことに心から興味を持つことになるでしょう。もしその人が10分あっても少年たちを引き付けられないようであるならば、干してしまいなさい! 少年たちを夢中にさせられないような人であるならば、スカウツオウンの集会など、しない方が良いでしょう。

 At the risk of being a bore I would like to point out once again a direction in which we want to progress. Provided we don’t aim too high or go too fast or too damn seriously, there is one job which we CAN do through our boys.
 It is the great little service of happifying. This old English word is one to carry in our minds in training our boys − more especially at this Christianising season of the year. If a boy only makes himself wear a cheery countenance in, the street it is something. (Don’t forget he gains it from the example of his Scoutmaster.) It happifies or brightens up numbers of his passers by, among the depressing hundreds of glum faces that they otherwise meet. The glum or the bright is equally infectious. To get the boy to do this as a step to greater happifying services is a thing worth trying for. The desire to happify once instilled into the character of the boy is going to make all the difference in his relations with his fellow-men, and in his attitude to the community in after-life. It will make him the “happy, helpful citizen” whom we need, and this, after all, is the real aim of our endeavour in Scouting.
from “Happifying” / The Scouter / January, 1929 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 それは happifying(幸せの贈り物)という、ささやかだけど偉大な奉仕です。この古いイギリスの言葉は、少年たちを訓練する上で気に留めておきたいものです ― 特に毎年のクリスマスシーズンに。もし、街路で、少年が自分なりに陽気な表情を装って振舞ったとしましょう。 (彼は隊長を真似してそれをするということを忘れないで。) それはそこに不機嫌な顔が数百あったとしても、その少年の顔とすれ違うことにより、通行人の何人かには幸せな気分にさせたり明るくしたりすることになるでしょう。不機嫌な顔同様に、明るい顔も伝染するものです。大きな happifying の奉仕の第一歩として、これを少年たちにさせることは価値のあることです。一旦少年の品性・人格(character)に、人を幸せにしたいという願望が芽生えさえすれば、彼の仲間との関係や後の生活で地域での彼の態度のすべてに違いが出てきます。これは少年を、私たちが必要としている「幸福であり人の力になる市民」に仕立てることであり、これは結局のところ、スカウティングにおいて私たちが努力している本当のねらいであるわけです。

 The aim of the Boy Scout and Girl Guide Movement is now generally understood to be that of making happy, healthy, helpful citizens. In this material age, with distractions and pleasures more than ever accessible, the training of the spirit is becoming correspondingly difficult, and is too largely neglected. Our object in the Scout Movement is to give such help as we can in bringing about God's Kingdom on earth by inculcating among youth the spirit and the daily practice in their lives of unselfish goodwill and co-operation.
 It is only through goodwill and co-operation ― that is, through service for others ― that a man reaches true success, which is happiness. For then he finds that heaven is here in this world, and not merely a vision of the next.
from “Scouting and Youth Movements” / 1929


 We should take care, in inculcating patriotism into our boys and girls, that it is patriotism above the narrow sentiment which usually stops at one's own country, and thus inspires jealousy and enmity in dealing with others. Our patriotism should be of the wider, nobler kind which recognizes justice and reasonableness in the claims of others and which leads our country into comradeship with, and recognition of, the other nations of the world.
 The first step to this end is to develop peace and goodwill within our own borders, by training our youth of both sexes to its practice as their habit of life; so that the jealousies of town against town, class against class and sect against sect no longer exist; and then to extend this good feeling beyond our frontiers towards our neighbours of other races.
from “Scouting and Youth Movements” / 1929


 Our aim is to bring up the next generation as useful citizens with a wider outlook than before and thereby to develop goodwill and peace in the world through comradeship and co-operation, in place of the prevailing rivalry between classes, creeds and countries which have done so much in the past to produce wars and unrest. We regard all men as brothers, sons of the one Father, among whom happiness can be brought only through the development of mutual tolerance and goodwill ― that is through love.
in the October 1932 issue of “Jamboree”/ Scouting and Peace - Unesco


 If you have read Rovering to Success you will have realised that my idea of success in life is Happiness. Happiness, as Sir Henry Newbolt says, is largely gained by "Happifying". A thing that many young fellows don't seem to realise at first is that success depends on oneself and not on a kindly fate, nor on the interest of powerful friends.
 I have over and over again explained that the purpose of the Boy Scout and Girl Guide Movement is to build men and women as citizens endowed with the three H's - namely, Health, Happiness and Helpfulness. The man or woman who Succeeds in developing these three attributes has secured the main steps to success in this life.
 Yet one more item is needed to complete success, and that is the rendering of service to others in the community. Without this the mere satisfaction of selfish desire does not reach the top notch.
 As I have said before, happiness is not solely the outcome of enjoyment of the good things in life and of the beauties and wonders of Nature, but it comes very largely also from the practice of happifying.

 もしあなたが ローバーリング ツウ サクセス を読まれたのであれば、人生における成功は幸福になることというのが私の考えであると了解されたことでしょう。幸福は、ヘンリー・ニューボルト卿の言うとおり、"Happifying(幸せを贈ること)"によって多くは得られるものです。多くの若者がはじめ気づかないことは、成功は、自分自身により成すものであり、幸運や、力を持つ友人の関与によるものではないということです。
 私が以前言ったように、幸福は、人生における良い出来事や、自然の美しさと驚異から導かれる楽しさによるものだけではありません。その多くは happifying の実践にもよるのです。

 To believe that Peace and Goodwill ― instead of war and ill-will ― constitute the reign of God in the world is in itself a “religion.” It is a religion to which all can subscribe, and one which no denomination will deny.
 It seems that each has to so discipline his conduct and, character that in his daily life he sees the other fellow’s point of view as well as his own, whether it is in business dealings, or in politics, national and international, and that he is prepared to give Service wherever he can see it needed.
 Its practice is citizenship of the highest type. After all, are not these the tenets which are, and always have been, the underlying aim of our training in the Scouts? If you could get them more fully understood and more widely extended it would be a direct and practical, if minor, contribution towards eventually bringing about the Kingdom of God in the world.
 Let us, therefore, in training our Scouts, keep the higher aims in the forefront, not let ourselves become too absorbed in the steps. Don't let the technical outweigh the moral. Field efficiency, backwoodsmanship, camping, hiking, good turns, jamboree comradeship are all means, not the end. The end is CHARACTER ― character with a purpose. And that purpose, that the next generation be sane in an insane world, and develop the higher realization of Service, the active service of Love and Duty to God and neighbour.
from “A Mountain Dream” / The Scouter / March, 1939 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK

 それゆえ、スカウトを訓練するとき、過程に没頭しすぎないで、より高いねらいを最前に保ちましょう。技術的なものが精神的なものにまさってはいけません。野外技術、辺境生活者精神、キャンプ、ハイキング、善行、ジャンボリーでの朋友の交わりは、みな手段であって究極のねらいではありません。究極のねらいは 人格(CHARACTER) です。目的を持つ人格(character)です。その目的とは、次の世代が病んだ世界の中にあっても健全であること、そして神と隣人への愛と務めの積極的な奉仕、そんな奉仕のより高い実践を進展させることです。

  The beginnings of any great development must naturally be small. The Christian religion itself started with only a tiny group of men who had faith, and from them, after some hundreds of years, it spread through Europe; and only now, two thousand years later, was it beginning to make its appeal to untutored peoples about the world.
  Scouting is by comparison as yet in its early babyhood, it has to grow for many generations before it can have gained sufficient hold on the minds and actions of men generally to secure Peace. But we are on the right road, and already showing the way. Only a sprinkling of Scouts about the world have as yet reached man’s estate, but they are well distributed among the different nations. The seed has been widely sown. More and more boys are growing up in their thousands to be the fathers of yet more Scouts in their millions.
  Most of us who have been sowing the seed will not in the nature of things be here to see the harvest; but we may well feel thankful, indeed jubilant, that our crop is already so well advanced as it is, considering the very short time that has elapsed since its original sowing.
  But it means that if that harvest is eventually to come, our job in the meantime is to see that the growing crop is adequately tended, that the boys now in our hands have the higher aims of Scouting so instilled into them that these become their principles for their lives, and not only for their own lives but for the lives of the sons they ultimately father into the world.
 But this instillation cannot be done by preaching, it can only be impressed through example and through such steps as appeal to the boyish instinct and temperament.
 Hence Scouting!
from “Sowing the Seed” / The Scouter / April, 1940 / B.-P.'S OUTLOOK


 The remedy must be applied to the rising generation.
 Its aim should be to instil “character” into the men of the future. By “character” is meant a spirit of manly self-reliance and of unselfishness, a practical Christianity ordering their daily life.
from “Where and How to Apply the Remedy” of “SCOUTING FOR BOYS” PRESENTATION EDITION


 A nation to be powerful and prosperous must be well disciplined, and you only get discipline in the mass by discipline in the individual.
 This cannot be got by repressive measures, but by encouragement and by educating the boy first in self-discipline and in sacrificing of self and selfish pleasures for the benefit of others.  This teaching is largely reflected by means of example, by putting responsibility upon him and by expecting a high standard of trustworthiness from him.
 There lies our work.


 The whole object of our Scouting is to seize the boys’ character in its red-hot stage of enthusiasm, and to weld it into the right shape and to encourage and develop its individuality ― so that the boy may educate himself to become a good man and a valuable citizen for his country.
 By so doing we may hope to take a useful part in bringing strength, both moral and physical to the Commonwealth.
 But in developing national aspirations there is always the danger of becoming narrow and jealous of other nations. Unless we avoid this we bring about the very evil we are anxious to escape.
 Fortunately in the Scout Movement we have brother Scouts organized in almost every civilized country in the world, and we have formed already the tangible nucleus of a world-brotherhood. And the potentialities of this are being supplemented by the wider development of the co-operative sister Movement, the Girl Guides.
 In every country the aim of the Scouts’ training is identical, namely, efficiency for service towards others ; and with such an object in common, we can, as an international Brotherhood in Service, go forward and do a far-reaching work.
 In our training of the boy we develop the individual in both spirit and efficiency to be an effective player in his national team of citizen-hood. Acting on the same principle in the case of a nation we should try to develop the right spirit of efficiency for helping that nation to work effectively in the team of nations.
 If each, then, plays in its place, and “plays the game,” there will be greater prosperity and happiness throughout the world, there will be brought about at last that condition which has so long been looked for ― of Peace and Good Will among men.

 私たちのスカウティングの全目的は、少年たちの人格(character)を、その情熱が燃えさかっている間につかんで、それを正しい型に流しこんで鍛え、その個性を励まし発揮させることです。― そうすれば少年は、国のために、善良な人間、価値ある市民となるよう、自分で自分を磨いていくことでしょう。
 そうしてもし、その各々の立場で、“正々堂々と行動する”ならば、世界中に大きな繁栄と幸福が生まれ、その結果、人類が永く待ちこがれていたもの ― 人類の間の平和と善意 ― がもたらされることになるでしょう。

 To my Brother Scouters and Guiders:
 Cecil Rhodes said at the end of his life (and I, in my turn to feel the truth of it), "So much to do and so little time to do it". No one can hope to see the consummation, as well as the start, of a big venture within the short span of one life-time.
 I have had an extraordinary experience in seeing the development of Scouting from its beginning up to its present stage. But there is a vast job before it. The Movement is only now getting into its stride. (When I speak of Scouting I include in it Guiding also). The one part which I can claim as mine towards promoting the movement is that I have been lucky enough to find you men and women to form a group of the right stamp who can be relied upon to carry it on to its goal. You will do well to keep yours eyes open, in your turn, for worthy successors to whom you can, with confidence, hand the torch. Don't let it became a salaried organization: keep it a voluntary movement of patriotic service.
 The Movement has already, in the comparatively short period of its existence, established itself onto a wide and so strong a footing as to show most encouraging promise of what may be possible to it in the coming years. Its aim is to produce healthy, happy, helpful citizens, of both sexes, to eradicate the prevailing narrow self-interest, personal, political, sectarian and national, and to substitute for it a broader spirit of self-sacrifice and service in the cause of humanity; and thus to develop mutual goodwill and co-operation not only within our own country but abroad, between all countries. Experience shows that this consummation is no idle or fantastic dream, but is a practicable possibility if we work for it; and it means, when attained, peace, prosperity and happiness for all. The "encouraging promise" lies in the fact that the hundreds of thousands of boys and girls who are learning our ideals today will be fathers and mothers of millions in the near future, in whom they will in turn inculcate the same ideals, provided that these are really and unmistakably impressed upon them by their fathers of today.
 Therefore you, who are Scouters and Guiders, are not only doing a great work for your neighbour's children but are also helping in practical fashion to bring to pass God's Kingdom of peace and goodwill upon earth. So, from my heart, I wish you God-speed in your effort.
B-P's Last Message to Scout Leaders

 セシル・ローズは死を前にして次のように言いました (そしてそれは私にとっても真実といえます)。「ことを成し遂げるに(一生という)時間はあまりにも短い」と。大きな冒険をしようとする者は、一生という短い期間では、その始まりの時のようには、誰であってもその成就・達成の姿を見ることを望めません。
 私は、スカウティングの発展をその始まりの時から今日の段階に至るまでを見届けたという、貴重な経験をしました。しかしそれを成し遂げるまでにはまだ壮大な仕事が控えています。この運動はほんの今、その一歩を踏み出したばかりです。 (私がスカウティングのことについて話すとき、私はガイディングのことも含めています。) この運動の展開において私が感謝を表明することができることの一つは、それを達成まで導いてくれるであろうあなた方頼れる男女を見つけることができた幸運があったことです。あなた方は、このかがり火を信頼して手渡すことができる後継者づくりのために目を見開いていてください。これを給料取りの組織にしてはいけません。愛国精神に基づく奉仕による自発的な運動にしておいてください。
 この運動は、既に、比較的短い期間のうちにこの運動を成就に導いてくれるであろう、私たちを勇気付けてくれる心強い約束(encouraging promise)を、この運動自体に確立させております。この運動のねらいは、健康で、幸福で、人の力になる市民の男女を育てることです。それは狭量な自己利益、個人、政治、宗派、国家の支配から脱し、広い視野と心が生む献身の精神を育て上げることであり、そしてその人たちは人類のために奉仕するのです。そして、相互の善意と協力は、私たち自身の国の中だけでなく、海外、すべての国の間で展開するのです。この成就は、空想や幻想的な夢ではなくて、私たちがそれのために働くならば、実現可能なものであることを、経験が示しています。そして、それが達成されたとき、それは、平和、繁栄、すべての人の幸福を意味します。今日、私たちの理想を学んでいる何十万人の少年と少女は、近い将来、数百万の子の父と母になるという事実は、「心強い約束(encouraging promise)」といえます。今日の父親らによってその子らに感銘を与えることができれば、今度はその子らによって同じ理想を順番に教え続けていくことでしょう。

 My life has been an intensely happy one, not only in my own home circle, but also in the world outside it.
 I would like before I go hence, to say how grateful I am to hundreds, -- aye thousands -- for kindnesses they have rendered to me.
 I have been deeply touched from time to time by that jolly goodwill which I have met with from brother Scouts and from fellow subjects of all stations in life throughout the Empire.
 Nor has this goodwill been confined to fellow countrymen, for men of other nationalities have given me their friendliness in the same way.
 It has been due not to anything that I have done for them, since in a great number of cases they have been entire strangers to me; but it has been the expression on their part of the kindliness that lay in their character.
 It has helped very largely to making my life the happy one it has been, and for that reason I do hope that that same kindly spirit will be inculcated and developed still more widely in the next generation, so that more lives will be made the happier, and the practice, not merely the precept, of the Christian ideal of peace and goodwill among men may become general.
 Looking back on a life of over eighty years, I realize how short life is and how little worth while are anger and political warfare.
 The most worth-while thing is to try and put a bit of happiness into the lives of others.
B-P's Last Message To The General Public


 My Dear Guides,
 This is just a farewell note to you -- the last you will hear from me.
 It is just to remind you, when I have passed on, that your business in life is to be happy and to make others happy.
 That sounds comfortable and easy doesn't it?
 You begin making other people happy by doing good turns to them. You need not worry about making yourselves happy, as you will very soon find that comes by itself.
 When you make other people happy, as you will very soon find that that comes by itself.
 When you make other people happy, it makes YOU happy too.
 Later on, when you have a home of your own, by making it a bright and cheery one you will make your husband a happy man.
 If all homes were bright and cheery there would be fewer public houses, and the men would not want to go out to them but would stay at home.
 It may mean hard work for you but will bring its own reward.
 Then if you keep your children health and clean and busy they will be happy. Happy children love their parents. And there is nothing can you greater joy than a loving child.
 I am sure God means us to be happy in this life. He has given us a world to live in that is full of beauties and wonders, and He has given us not only eyes to see them but minds to understand them -- if only we have the sense to look at them in that light.
 We can enjoy bright sunshine and glorious views. We can see beauty in the trees and flowers. We can watch with wonder how the seed produces the young plant which grows to a flower which in its turn, will replace other flowers as they die off.
 For, though plants, like people, die, their race will replace other flowers as they die off.
 For, those plants, like people, die, their race does not die away, but new ones are born and grow up to carry on the Creator's plan.
 So, do you see, you women are the chosen servants of God in two ways: first to carry on the race, to bring children into the world to replace the men and women who pass away: secondly, to bring happiness into the world by making happy homes and by being yourselves good cheery comrades for your husbands and children.
 And that is where you, as Guides, especially come in. By being a 'comrade' -- that is, by taking an interest in your husband's work and aspirations -- you can help him with your sympathy and suggestions and so be a guide to him. Also, in bringing up your children by strengthening and training their minds and characters , as well as their bodies and health, you will be giving them to the better use and enjoyment of life.
 By giving out love and happiness in this way you will gain for yourselves the return love of your husband and children -- and there is nothing better in this world.
 You will find that Heaven is not a kind of happiness somewhere up in the skies after you are dead, but right here and now, in this world, in your own home.
 So -- guide others to happiness, and you will bring happiness to yourselves; and by doing this you will be doing what God wants of you.
 God be with you,
B-P's Last Message To Girl Guides

 私は、この世において、神が人の幸せを定めていると信じています。神は、私たちに美と驚異に満ちた人生を与えてくれました。更に私たちに、目で見るだけではなく、それを理解する心を与えてくれました。― もしその光の中でそれらを見つめる心を持てばです。
 そして、それはあなたがガイドであることで、特にいえます。「同志(comrade)」であること ― つまり、あなたの夫の仕事と願望に関心を持つことにより ― あなたの思いやり(sympathy)と助言(suggestions)でもって、彼を助けることができ、彼のガイドになることができます。また、子どもを育てる際は、身体や健康だけでなく、心と人格の強化と訓練をすることにより、人生により良い生活と楽しさを与えることになります。
 このように愛と幸福を与えることによって、あなたは、夫と子どもたちから返ってくる愛を受け取ることになるでしょう。― この世界に、これ以上に良いことがあるでしょうか。

 To Rover Scouts
 Well, all of you who have gone on Scouting as Rovers have “stuck to it” though very often it may have been thoroughly disheartening times.
 But when I go home I want you to stick to Scouting with greater fortitude than ever.
 I want to feel that I am leaving the movement safe in good hands to be carried on after I am gone.
 And you are the fellows to do it.
 Don’t let Scouting go down.
 Here, you have a real opportunity for Service by keeping up the movement for the benefit of your younger brothers.
 By so doing you will be helping your country and your neighbours and thereby doing service for God.
B-P's Last Message To Rover Scouts


 Dear Scouts
 If you have ever seen the play Peter Pan you will remember how the pirate chief was always making his dying speech, because he was afraid that possibly, when the time came for him to die, he might not have time to get it off his chest.
 It is much the same with me, and so, although I am not at this moment dying, I shall be doing so one of these days, and I want to send you a parting word of goodbye.
 Remember, it is the last you will ever hear from me, so think it over. I have had a most happy life, and I want each and every one of you to have as happy a life too. I believe that God put us in this jolly world to be happy and enjoy life.
 Happiness does not come from being rich, nor merely from being successful in your career, nor by self indulgence.
 One step towards happiness is to make yourself healthy and strong while you are a boy, so that you can be useful, and so can enjoy life when you are a man. Nature study will show you how full of beautiful and wonderful things God has made the world for you to enjoy.
 Be contented with what you have got, and make the best of it, look on the bright side of things instead of the gloomy one. But the real way to get happiness is by giving out happiness to other people. Try and leave this world a little better than you found it, and when your turn comes to die you can die happy in feeling that at any rate you have not wasted your time but have done your best.
 Be Prepared in this way, to live happy and to die happy, stick to your Scout Promise always even after you have ceased to be a boy and God help you to do it.
Your friend  Baden-Powell
B-P's Last Message to Scouts

あなたたちの友  ベーデン-パウエル

⚜       ⚜       ⚜

 B-P は character の語を多用していますが、いわゆる Christian Character を意識して用いているように思われます。Christian Character は、キリストに降伏し、日々の修行をとおして成長し、豊かな人間になっていく可能性や過程を表しているものです。それは、精神的な規律、動機、服従、粘り強い信仰が基となり、キリストの愛を受け入れ、キリストを求め、その弟子となり、永続的な祈りをとおして形作られる人格であり、剛毅と柔和さ、純粋さと正義を併せ持つ品性を表しています。新約聖書の和訳では、錬達、または 練られた品性 と表現されています。
 Therefore, since we have been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. Through him we have also obtained access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and we rejoice in hope of the glory of God. Not only that, but we rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, and hope does not put us to shame, because God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us. (Romans 5:1-5 /ESV)

 ですから、信仰によって義と認められた私たちは、私たちの主イエス・キリストによって、神との平和を持っています。またキリストによって、いま私たちの立っているこの恵みに信仰によって導き入れられた私たちは、神の栄光を望んで大いに喜んでいます。そればかりではなく、患難さえも喜んでいます。それは、患難が忍耐を生み出し、忍耐が練られた品性を生み出し、練られた品性が希望を生み出すと知っているからです。この希望は失望に終わることがありません。なぜなら、私たちに与えられた聖霊によって、神の愛が私たちの心に注がれているからです。(ローマ人への手紙 5:1-5 /新改訳聖書)

δικαιωθεντες ουν εκ πιστεως ειρηνην εχομεν προς τον θεον δια του κυριου ημων ιησου χριστου  δι ου και την προσαγωγην εσχηκαμεν τη πιστει εις την χαριν ταυτην εν η εστηκαμεν και καυχωμεθα επ ελπιδι της δοξης του θεου  ου μονον δε αλλα και καυχωμεθα εν ταις θλιψεσιν ειδοτες οτι η θλιψις υπομονην κατεργαζεται  η δε υπομονη δοκιμην η δε δοκιμη ελπιδα  η δε ελπις ου καταισχυνει οτι η αγαπη του θεου εκκεχυται εν ταις καρδιαις ημων δια πνευματος αγιου του δοθεντος ημιν  (ΠΡΟΣ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΥΣ Κεφάλαιο 5 )

לכן אחרי נצדקנו באמונה שלום לנו עם האלהים באדנינו ישוע המשיח׃ אשר בידו מצאנו באמונה מבוא אל החסד הזה אשר אנחנו עמדים בו ונתהלל בתקות כבוד האלהים׃ ולא זאת בלבד כי אף נתהלל בצרות יען אשר ידענו כי הצרה מביאה לידי סבלנות׃ והסבלנות לידי עמידה בנסיון והעמידה בנסיון לידי תקוה׃ והתקוה היא לא תביש כי הוצק בלבבנו אהבת אל על ידי רוח הקדש הנתן לנו׃ (אגרת פולוס השליח אל-הרומיים פרק ה)

 B-P は敬虔なクリスチャンであり、彼の世界観や主張もそこから生まれ出でていることがわかります。B-P が唱える愛と善意、平和、奉仕についての思想的基盤を聖書の中に見つけることができます。
 By this we know love, that he laid down his life for us, and we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers. But if anyone has the world’s goods and sees his brother in need, yet closes his heart against him, how does God’s love abide in him? Little children, let us not love in word or talk but in deed and in truth.
 And this is his commandment, that we believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ and love one another, just as he has commanded us.
 Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God, and whoever loves has been born of God and knows God. Anyone who does not love does not know God, because God is love. In this the love of God was made manifest among us, that God sent his only Son into the world, so that we might live through him. In this is love, not that we have loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins. Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. No one has ever seen God; if we love one another, God abides in us and his love is perfected in us. (1 John 3:16-18,23,4:7-12 /ESV)

 愛する者たち。私たちは、互いに愛し合いましょう。愛は神から出ているのです。愛のある者はみな神から生まれ、神を知っています。愛のない者に、神はわかりません。なぜなら神は愛だからです。神はそのひとり子を世に遣わし、その方によって私たちに、いのちを得させてくださいました。ここに、神の愛が私たちに示されたのです。私たちが神を愛したのではなく、神が私たちを愛し、私たちの罪のために、なだめの供え物としての御子を遣わされました。ここに愛があるのです。愛する者たち。神がこれほどまでに私たちを愛してくださったのなら、私たちもまた互いに愛し合うべきです。いまだかつて、だれも神を見た者はありません。もし私たちが互いに愛し合うなら、神は私たちのうちにおられ、神の愛が私たちのうちに全うされるのです。(ヨハネの手紙第一 3:16-18,23,4:7-12 /新改訳聖書)

εν τουτω εγνωκαμεν την αγαπην του θεου οτι εκεινος υπερ ημων την ψυχην αυτου εθηκεν και ημεις οφειλομεν υπερ των αδελφων τας ψυχας τιθεναι ος δ αν εχη τον βιον του κοσμου και θεωρη τον αδελφον αυτου χρειαν εχοντα και κλειση τα σπλαγχνα αυτου απ αυτου πως η αγαπη του θεου μενει εν αυτω  τεκνια μου μη αγαπωμεν λογω μηδε γλωσση αλλ εργω και αληθεια
και αυτη εστιν η εντολη αυτου ινα πιστευσωμεν τω ονοματι του υιου αυτου ιησου χριστου και αγαπωμεν αλληλους καθως εδωκεν εντολην ημιν
αγαπητοι αγαπωμεν αλληλους οτι η αγαπη εκ του θεου εστιν και πας ο αγαπων εκ του θεου γεγεννηται και γινωσκει τον θεον ο μη αγαπων ουκ εγνω τον θεον οτι ο θεος αγαπη εστιν εν τουτω εφανερωθη η αγαπη του θεου εν ημιν οτι τον υιον αυτου τον μονογενη απεσταλκεν ο θεος εις τον κοσμον ινα ζησωμεν δι αυτου εν τουτω εστιν η αγαπη ουχ οτι ημεις ηγαπησαμεν τον θεον αλλ οτι αυτος ηγαπησεν ημας και απεστειλεν τον υιον αυτου ιλασμον περι των αμαρτιων ημων αγαπητοι ει ουτως ο θεος ηγαπησεν ημας και ημεις οφειλομεν αλληλους αγαπαν θεον ουδεις πωποτε τεθεαται εαν αγαπωμεν αλληλους ο θεος εν ημιν μενει και η αγαπη αυτου τετελειωμενη εστιν εν ημιν (ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ Α΄ Κεφάλαιο 3, 4)

 He will render to each one according to his works: to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life; but for those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, there will be wrath and fury. There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek, but glory and honor and peace for everyone who does good, the Jew first and also the Greek. For God shows no partiality. For all who have sinned without the law will also perish without the law, and all who have sinned under the law will be judged by the law. For it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law who will be justified. (Romans 2:6-13 /ESV)

 神は、ひとりひとりに、その人の行ないに従って報いをお与えになります。忍耐をもって善を行ない、栄光と誉れと不滅のものとを求める者には、永遠のいのちを与え、党派心を持ち、真理に従わないで不義に従う者には、怒りと憤りを下されるのです。患難と苦悩とは、ユダヤ人をはじめギリシヤ人にも、悪を行なうすべての者の上に下り、栄光と誉れと平和は、ユダヤ人をはじめギリシヤ人にも、善を行なうすべての者の上にあります。神にはえこひいきなどはないからです。律法なしに罪を犯した者はすべて、律法なしに滅び、律法の下にあって罪を犯した者はすべて、律法によってさばかれます。それは、律法を聞く者が神の前に正しいのではなく、律法を行なう者が正しいと認められるからです。(ローマ人への手紙 2:6-13 /新改訳聖書)

ος αποδωσει εκαστω κατα τα εργα αυτου τοις μεν καθ υπομονην εργου αγαθου δοξαν και τιμην και αφθαρσιαν ζητουσιν ζωην αιωνιον τοις δε εξ εριθειας και απειθουσιν μεν τη αληθεια πειθομενοις δε τη αδικια θυμος και οργη θλιψις και στενοχωρια επι πασαν ψυχην ανθρωπου του κατεργαζομενου το κακον ιουδαιου τε πρωτον και ελληνος δοξα δε και τιμη και ειρηνη παντι τω εργαζομενω το αγαθον ιουδαιω τε πρωτον και ελληνι ου γαρ εστιν προσωποληψια παρα τω θεω οσοι γαρ ανομως ημαρτον ανομως και απολουνται και οσοι εν νομω ημαρτον δια νομου κριθησονται ου γαρ οι ακροαται του νομου δικαιοι παρα τω θεω αλλ οι ποιηται του νομου δικαιωθησονται (ΠΡΟΣ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΥΣ Κεφάλαιο 2)

 Finally, all of you, have unity of mind, sympathy, brotherly love, a tender heart, and a humble mind. Do not repay evil for evil or reviling for reviling, but on the contrary, bless, for to this you were called, that you may obtain a blessing. For “Whoever desires to love life and see good days, let him keep his tongue from evil and his lips from speaking deceit; let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it. For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears are open to their prayer. But the face of the Lord is against those who do evil.” Now who is there to harm you if you are zealous for what is good? But even if you should suffer for righteousness’ sake, you will be blessed. Have no fear of them, nor be troubled, but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect, having a good conscience, so that, when you are slandered, those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame. For it is better to suffer for doing good, if that should be God’s will, than for doing evil. (1 Peter 3:8-17 /ESV)

 最後に申します。あなたがたはみな、心を一つにし、同情し合い、兄弟愛を示し、あわれみ深く、謙遜でありなさい。悪をもって悪に報いず、侮辱をもって侮辱に報いず、かえって祝福を与えなさい。あなたがたは祝福を受け継ぐために召されたのだからです。「いのちを愛し、幸いな日々を過ごしたいと思う者は、舌を押えて悪を言わず、くちびるを閉ざして偽りを語らず、 悪から遠ざかって善を行ない、平和を求めてこれを追い求めよ。主の目は義人の上に注がれ、主の耳は彼らの祈りに傾けられる。しかし主の顔は、悪を行なう者に立ち向かう。」 もし、あなたがたが善に熱心であるなら、だれがあなたがたに害を加えるでしょう。いや、たとい義のために苦しむことがあるにしても、それは幸いなことです。彼らの脅かしを恐れたり、それによって心を動揺させたりしてはいけません。むしろ、心の中でキリストを主としてあがめなさい。そして、あなたがたのうちにある希望について説明を求める人には、だれにでもいつでも弁明できる用意をしていなさい。ただし、優しく、慎み恐れて、また、正しい良心をもって弁明しなさい。そうすれば、キリストにあるあなたがたの正しい生き方をののしる人たちが、あなたがたをそしったことで恥じ入るでしょう。もし、神のみこころなら、善を行なって苦しみを受けるのが、悪を行なって苦しみを受けるよりよいのです。(ペテロの手紙第一 3:8-17 /新改訳聖書)

το δε τελος παντες ομοφρονες συμπαθεις φιλαδελφοι ευσπλαγχνοι φιλοφρονες μη αποδιδοντες κακον αντι κακου η λοιδοριαν αντι λοιδοριας τουναντιον δε ευλογουντες ειδοτες οτι εις τουτο εκληθητε ινα ευλογιαν κληρονομησητε ο γαρ θελων ζωην αγαπαν και ιδειν ημερας αγαθας παυσατω την γλωσσαν αυτου απο κακου και χειλη αυτου του μη λαλησαι δολον εκκλινατω απο κακου και ποιησατω αγαθον ζητησατω ειρηνην και διωξατω αυτην οτι οι οφθαλμοι κυριου επι δικαιους και ωτα αυτου εις δεησιν αυτων προσωπον δε κυριου επι ποιουντας κακα και τις ο κακωσων υμας εαν του αγαθου μιμηται γενησθε αλλ ει και πασχοιτε δια δικαιοσυνην μακαριοι τον δε φοβον αυτων μη φοβηθητε μηδε ταραχθητε κυριον δε τον θεον αγιασατε εν ταις καρδιαις υμων ετοιμοι δε αει προς απολογιαν παντι τω αιτουντι υμας λογον περι της εν υμιν ελπιδος μετα πραυτητος και φοβου συνειδησιν εχοντες αγαθην ινα εν ω καταλαλωσιν υμων ως κακοποιων καταισχυνθωσιν οι επηρεαζοντες υμων την αγαθην εν χριστω αναστροφην κρειττον γαρ αγαθοποιουντας ει θελει το θελημα του θεου πασχειν η κακοποιουντας (ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ Κεφάλαιο 3)

 The end of all things is at hand; therefore be self-controlled and sober-minded for the sake of your prayers. Above all, keep loving one another earnestly, since love covers a multitude of sins. Show hospitality to one another without grumbling. As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as good stewards of God’s varied grace: whoever speaks, as one who speaks oracles of God; whoever serves, as one who serves by the strength that God supplies - in order that in everything God may be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen. (1 Peter 4:7-11 /ESV)

 万物の終わりが近づきました。ですから、祈りのために、心を整え身を慎みなさい。何よりもまず、互いに熱心に愛し合いなさい。愛は多くの罪をおおうからです。つぶやかないで、互いに親切にもてなし合いなさい。それぞれが賜物を受けているのですから、神のさまざまな恵みの良い管理者として、その賜物を用いて、互いに仕え合いなさい。語る人があれば、神のことばにふさわしく語り、奉仕する人があれば、神が豊かに備えてくださる力によって、それにふさわしく奉仕しなさい。それは、すべてのことにおいて、イエス・キリストを通して神があがめられるためです。栄光と支配が世々限りなくキリストにありますように。アーメン。(ペテロの手紙第一 4:7-11 /新改訳聖書)

παντων δε το τελος ηγγικεν σωφρονησατε ουν και νηψατε εις τας προσευχας προ παντων δε την εις εαυτους αγαπην εκτενη εχοντες οτι η αγαπη καλυψει πληθος αμαρτιων φιλοξενοι εις αλληλους ανευ γογγυσμων εκαστος καθως ελαβεν χαρισμα εις εαυτους αυτο διακονουντες ως καλοι οικονομοι ποικιλης χαριτος θεου ει τις λαλει ως λογια θεου ει τις διακονει ως εξ ισχυος ης χορηγει ο θεος ινα εν πασιν δοξαζηται ο θεος δια ιησου χριστου ω εστιν η δοξα και το κρατος εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων αμην (ΠΕΤΡΟΥ Α΄ Κεφάλαιο 4)


     せいちゃんの B-P スピリット 研究
     @ ボーイスカウト運動についての諸考察 (2014.10.5)
     A スカウティング フォア ボーイズ に記された B-P スピリット (2015.7.22)
     B 「隊長の手引」に記された B-P スピリット (2015.8.14)
     C ローバーリング ツウ サクセス に記された B-P スピリット (2015.8.15)
     D 「パトロール システム」に記されたフィリップスのスピリット (2015.9.26)
     E 進歩制度に託された B-P スピリット (2015.10.14)
     F 信仰の奨励に託された B-P スピリット (2015.10.12)
     G 野外活動に託された B-P スピリット (2015.11.29)
     H スカウト運動に託した B-P スピリット (2016.7.14)
     I “ちかい”と“おきて”に託した B-P スピリット (2016.12.12)
     J ボーイスカウト研究 (1979.12.14)
     K ボーイスカウト実践記 (1980.4.28)
     L ボーイスカウト活動プログラムの紹介 (1998.6.20)
     M 《資料》B-Pの1926年の講演「ボーイスカウト・ガールガイド運動における宗教」
     N 《資料》1966年のチーフスカウトのアドバンスパーティーの勧告の序文
     O 《資料》ラズロ ナジ 著「REPORT ON WORLD SCOUTING」(1967) の序文

   スカウティング フォア ボーイズ 第27版 (ボーイスカウト神奈川連盟県央地区ウェブサイト)
   SCOUTING FOR BOYS (カナダ ScoutsCan.com ウェブサイト)
   「隊長の手引」 ボーイスカウト日本連盟訳 (ボーイスカウト茨城県連盟ウェブサイト)
   AIDS TO SCOUTMASTERSHIP (隊長の手引) ( ScoutMedia ウェブサイト)
   ROVERING TO SUCCESS (カナダ ScoutsCan.com ウェブサイト)
   SCOUTING AND YOUTH MOVEMENTS(スカウティング青少年運動)(ScoutsCan.comウェブサイト)
   LESSONS FROM THE 'VARSITY OF LIFE (人生大学からの教訓)(ScoutsCan.comウェブサイト)
   B.-P.'S OUTLOOK (ScoutsCan.comウェブサイト)
   Scouting as a Cocurricular Activity / T.C. Sharma /Google Books
   Scouting and Peace (Unesco ウェブサイト)
   Baden-Powell's Last Message to Scouts (世界スカウト機構ウェブサイト)
   Christian Character (Discipleshiptools.org)



スカウト運動に託した B-P スピリット アクセスカウンター SFI